Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in by Robin W. Bates

By Robin W. Bates

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Extra info for Alternative policies for the control of air pollution in Poland

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MOHAMED T. EL ASHRY DIRECTOR ENVIRONMENT DEPARTMENT Page viii Acknowledgments The simulation analysis presented in this study is the product of a team effort by numerous researchers at the Polish Academy of Sciences. The authors particularly wish to thank W. Bojarski, Z. Parczewski, A. Umer, Z. Klimont, and T. Mroczek for their contributions to the simulations. A number of other Polish experts provided valuable support, information, advice, and comments during the course of the project. We owe a particular debt of gratitude to Stanislaw Sitnicki and Tomasz Zylicz in this regard.

Suppose further that each activity k can be pursued through the use of m = 1, , Mk technologies. Finally, suppose each technology uses some subset of final energy types i = 1, , I. Using these indexing conventions, define: Akj = level of activity k in sector j; Tmkj = share of Akj achieved with technology m; Fmkj = energy intensity of technology m in pursuing Akj; Simkj = share of final energy type i used with technology m in pursuing Akj. An example may be useful in interpreting these symbols.

Resources invested in these activities are not available for other purposes and thus constitute part of the opportunity cost of pollution control. There also are indirect effects of policy that may be important. These arise from the fact that, at least in a functioning market system, the additional costs of pollution control will be reflected in higher prices for final goods and services. As a result, consumers will reduce consumption of more expensive commodities and experience a loss in real well-being; in effect, the real command of household incomes over goods and services will be reduced.

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