African American Urban History since World War II by Kenneth L. Kusmer, Joe W. Trotter

By Kenneth L. Kusmer, Joe W. Trotter

Historians have dedicated strangely little cognizance to African American city background of the postwar interval, in particular in comparison with past many years. Correcting this imbalance, African American city heritage on account that international warfare II positive aspects an exhilarating mixture of pro students and clean new voices whose mixed efforts give you the first entire evaluation of this crucial subject.            the 1st of this volume’s 5 groundbreaking sections specializes in black migration and Latino immigration, reading tensions and alliances that emerged among African americans and different teams. Exploring the demanding situations of residential segregation and deindustrialization, later sections take on such issues because the genuine property industry’s discriminatory practices, the circulate of middle-class blacks to the suburbs, and the effect of black city activists on nationwide employment and social welfare guidelines. one other team of individuals examines those subject matters during the lens of gender, chronicling deindustrialization’s disproportionate impression on ladies and women’s major roles in hobbies for social swap. Concluding with a collection of essays on black tradition and intake, this quantity absolutely realizes its target of linking neighborhood adjustments with the nationwide and worldwide approaches that have an effect on city type and race kin.

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Full of anticipation, hoping for a better standard of living and freedom from southern Jim Crow restrictions, the young family instead found Oakland very difficult. Housing was a nightmare. Initially, they squeezed into an aunt’s already crowded flat in West Oakland, which before the war had been the site of Oakland’s small black community. Dona felt lost in the frenzied wartime city, where black people were finding certain kinds of jobs but struggled for living space. She appreciated the new freedoms.

The gender distribution had something to do with unequal job opportunities in the rural South. Farmwork privileged young males, especially as agriculture contracted and family-oriented production through tenant farming and sharecropping gave way to employment on consolidated and mechanized farms. Because this was usually seasonal and undependable work, it put pressure on family incomes. Female incomes became increasingly important but also increasingly difficult as women in the rural South competed for scarce positions, mostly in domestic service.

Northern-born black women with high school or college experience earned somewhat more than southerners. At lower educational levels, southerners averaged 10 percent more than their northern-born counterparts. There are a number of theories about why black southerners enjoyed this advantage: selective migration by more ambitious individuals; selection that favored stable and helpful family systems; selective return migration by those who had trouble in their new homes; hard work and ambition as a self-fulfilling mythology among the migrant generation; and the possibility that northern young people grew up with less advantageous value systems in ghettos that after midcentury became zones of distress and discouragement.

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