By World Bank
This file is a part of the Bank's present efforts to check the growth remodeled the prior 5 years and to make plans for more advantageous effectiveness for the long run.
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Additional info for Advancing sustainable development: the World Bank and Agenda 21
This is the purpose of the so-called market-based instruments. There are many such instruments, including effluent charges, deposit-refund schemes, performance bonds, and tradable permits. The good news is that almost all of them are being tried out somewhere. The bad news is that they are not being tried in enough places. Such approaches can lead to dramatic savings even at the global level. Consider the issue of climate change, for example. Experts calculate that it may cost industrial countries around $250 billion per year to reduce their own carbon emissions to the extent required.
The primary way to ensure that private investment supports rather than undermines environmental sustainability is through sound environmental policies in the host countries. Some encouraging progress is being made here. The World Bank, for example, is assisting seventy developing countries in reforming their environmental policies. In about fifty of these countries, we are beginning to see real progress, although almost all countries still have a long way to go. The environmental policies that are emerging are different from those traditionally followed in today's industrial countries.
3 billion live on less than $2 per day. 3 billion are without clean water. 2 billion are without sanitation. And 800 million are malnourished These numbers have stayed roughly constant in the five years since Rio. The proportion of the world's population in poverty has fallen slightly, but the absolute number has stayed the same. We see a divergence of development paths, with a growing concentration of poverty in Africa. 4 percent lower than at the time of UNCED, while incomes in East Asia are up 9 percent.