Advances in Immunology, Vol. 46 by Frank J. (Editor) Dixon

By Frank J. (Editor) Dixon

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1985, 1987). , 1988) (Fig. 8a). Similar to the mouse Qu and Tla region class I genes, the function and expression of most of the non-HLA-A,B,Cgenes are not yet characterized. The class I1 molecules are encoded by genes in the HLA-D region and, based on serological experiments, can be subdivided into three families: DR, DQ and DP. 8 . Physical maps of the human HLA Major Histocompatibility Complex. (a) General organization of the locus. (b) Detail of the organization of the HLA-D subregion. The specificities of the gene products are shown below the genes.

The orientations of the genes are shown as arrows above the genes. The distance between S and D has not been determined. 30 ERIC LA1 ET A L . , 1987b). The transcriptional orientation of the S region genes are the same as the K region genes, but opposite to that of the D region. Muller et ul. (1987a) have found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF-a) and lymphotoxin (TNF-P) are located within the H-2 complex and map close to the D region (see Fig. 7). The transcriptional orientation of the TNF-a and -0 genes is opposite to that of the class I H2-D genes.

The sizes of various exons and the relative distances between them are not drawn to scale. The transcriptional orientations of the Vr gene segments are shown as horizontal arrows. For exons included in brackets, the orientation has not been determined relative to the rest of the y genes. 39 MAPS OF IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIKE LOCI mouse immunoglobulin X light chain locus (Eisen and Reilly, 1985) and the shark immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (Hinds and Litman, 1986). A limited number of V, gene segments are located 5’ to a singleJy gene segment and a single C, gene in four apparent clusters.

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