Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 8 by H.E. Landsberg (ed.), J. Van Mieghem (ed.)

By H.E. Landsberg (ed.), J. Van Mieghem (ed.)

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For example, the eight cycles between 1858 and 1912 each show a successive alternation in amplitude. This effect, if real, disappears during years of relatively large R,,, . Many attempts have been made to represent sunspot data analytically with the thought of predicting future sunspot activity. Successful represent,ations have been achieved for periods of time in excess of 100 years, but all attempts to predict subsequent cycles from these analytical representations have been markcd by failure relative to simple statistical predictions.

On two occasions, distended loops have been observed to break apart in a violent “whiplike” motion suggesting an outward surge of matter. It is not known to what extent these apparent motions are real motions of matter or simply changing thermodynamic conditions. ” Since the corona is the outermost region of the solar atmosphere, any radiations reaching the earth must either traverse it or origiite within it. Solar x-rays and part of the ultraviolet radiation originate within the corona, and their variations are best described by coronal parameters.

Observational establishment of the existence of the general or polar field awaited the development of a very precise electronic magnetometer by H. W. and K. D. Babcock [28]. With this instrument the Babcocks established that there are magnetic fields of consistent sign in the sun's polar caps. 42 R. G . ATHAY AND C. S. WARWICK Their measurements were confined to the longitudinal component of the field as shown by the Zeeman splitting of certain iron lines in the solar photosphere. But they conclusively established the existence of a field of reasonably uniform character with a strength of about one gauss a t the poles.

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