Advances in Geophysics, Vol. 32 by Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)

By Renata Dmowska (ed.), Barry Saltzman (ed.)

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The energy values are bounded by the lines of constant apparent stress to show that the energy for a given seismic moment varies by a factor of 20. , Boatwright, 1984b). This is also true in mine-induced seismicity; the energy E,, is the lower bound of the seismic energy values in Fig. 25. The P-wave energy E, versus S-wave energy E, for mine tremors in the Ruhr basin is shown in Fig. 26, where the values of the ratio EJE, are also 48 SLAWOMIR J. GIBOWICZ A 4 c I0 5 4 1. 25. Logarithm of seismic energy versus seismic moment magnitude for small tremors observed at the Heinrich Robert coal mine, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1987 and 1988.

P is the uniaxial load, SS is the shear displacement, I is the implosive displaceme~nt,and V is the propagation velocity of shear and implosive dislocations. 20-;o 0 0 ..... ,... ...... ...... ... ..... ...... ...... - FIG. 18. Radiation patterns of P waves (A) and vertical component of S waves (B) generated by combined shear-implosive sources with the implosion/shear ratio from 0 to 20% for P waves and from 0 to 100% for S waves. Equal-area projection of the whole focal sphere with the upper hemisphere in the center is used.

The lines of constant apparent stress show the range of energy variation for a given seismic moment. The Gutenberg-Richter relation is shown by a dashed line. , 1990). 5 to 30; for two thirds of the events this ratio is smaller than 10. , Boatwright and Fletcher, 1984). , 1990). 26. Logarithm of P-wave energy versus logarithm of S-wave energy for small tremors observed at the Heinrich Robert coal mine, Federal Republic of Germany, in 1987 and 1988. The values of the ratio of P-wave over S-wave energy are indicated by straight lines.

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