Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, Vol. 77 by Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

By Peter W. Hawkes (Ed.)

This quantity comprises overview articles overlaying a large diversity of subject matters in picture processing and research. the themes coated contain picture research - which has united and harmonized a bunch of heterogeneous fabric; modern techniques to the Fourier remodel; quantity theoretic transforms, that are quite appealing for discrete, finite signs; using the Wigner distribution - which encodes either spatial and spectral info, for photograph filtering; and purposes of the idea that of knowledge strength. those updated surveys are meant to supply the reader with entry to the most recent leads to the tremendous lively box of snapshot technological know-how.

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The transfer characteristics of this transistor, indicated by the drain 34 SHINJI MOROZUMI a-Si FIG. 15. Design of a-Si field-effect transistor element: (a) section through device; (b) FET in part of the matrix array (ITO: indium-tin-oxide squares, G: gate electrode, D: drain electrode, S: source electrode, A: contact hole etched through sillicon nitride film). , 1981. ) lo-' d 10-6 - 10-0 - 10-10- 10-12 -10 I 0 10 VC 20 30 40 (v) FIG. 16. , 1981. ) ACTIVE-MATRIX THIN-FILM TRANSISTOR LIQUID-CRYSTAL DISPLAYS 35 current I , as a function of gate voltage V, for 2, 10, and 20 volts of drain voltage V,, are shown in Fig.

The poly-Si film for the gate electrode is then deposited and removed except in the Poly- Si ,-Gate Electrode Source and Drain Regions Insulator (SiOZ) (C 1 FIG. 21. Fabrication process of a high-temperature-processed poly-Si TFT: (a) poly-Si film is deposited by LPT CVD on the quartz substrate and patterned; (b) after thermal oxidation of the first layer of poly-Si, a second poly-Si layer is deposited and patterned to form the gate electrode. Following this, self-aligned source and drain regions are formed in the first poly-Si layer by ion implantation; (c) after a second SiO, deposition, contact holes are opened to the source and drain regions; (d) I T 0 is sputtered and patterned to form the data line and pixel electrode.

As indicated by Eq. (13), channel-region semiconductor films with small values of a and t have a smaller photo-induced leakage current. It is therefore obvious that a very thin semiconductor film is useful to reduce such current. In cases where the photo-leakage current is too large, a light shield in the form of a metal film may be deposited over each TFT to reduce this current to an acceptable level. 5. Reliability Problems Conventionally, the reliability of MOS transistors on a Si single-crystal wafer is evaluated by means of the bias-temperature (BT) test, in which maximum-rating DC voltages are applied at elevated temperatures between gate and drain and between source and drain.

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