A survey of techniques for formal verification of by Jain J., Narayan A., Fujita M.

By Jain J., Narayan A., Fujita M.

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9. The Huygens᎐Fresnel wave theory states that the electromagnetic field at a point S2 is due to the summation of the fields caused by reradiation from small incremental areas over a closed surface about a point source S1 , provided that S1 is the only source of radiation. The field at a constant distance r 1 from S1 , which is a spherical surface, has the same phase over the entire surface since the electromagnetic wave travels at a constant phase velocity in all directions in free space. The constant phase surface is called a wa®efront.

Even so, there are instances where rainfall fading has had deleterious effects on frequencies below 10 GHz. The mitigation of this 28 RADIO PROPAGATION type of fading is discussed in Chapter 9. Severe outages are usually caused by the blockage of the path by the passage of rain cells. , 10᎐20 minutes. and are often accompanied by thunder. These rain cells are often 4᎐8 miles in diameter. 17a shows fairly slow, erratic level changes, with apparent rapid signal ‘‘suck-out’’ as the rain cell intercepts the signals path.

Again where r 0 f 6370 km and h is the height above the earth’s surface. 10 6 , so that ⌬n ⌬h s ⌬N ⌬h Ž 10y6 . 19 . 20 . 3 where several values of K and ⌬ Nr⌬ h are listed to the right. 0, where the refractivity gradients are positive. 33, placing the receiving terminal out of normal propagation range. 0 or y157 F ⌬ Nr⌬ h F 0. In this case the ray is bent toward the earth. When ⌬ Nr⌬ h s y157, the ray has the same curvature as the earth and the ray path acts like straight-line propagation over a flat earth.

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