A Social History of Engineering by W H G Armytage

By W H G Armytage

A Social background of Engineering indicates how social and monetary stipulations in each one age have brought about advances in engineering. There are, briefly, fiscal, political, and philosophical implications in altering applied sciences. whereas the booklet starts off with the Stone Age, the Greeks, and the Romans, the majority of the amount concentrates at the 19th and 20th centuries. A Social historical past of Engineering displays Professor Armytage's particular topic region pursuits, particularly nineteenth-century commercial society, radical and socialist routine, the historical past association, and the research of upper and technical schooling.

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D. with scientists like the two Aryabhatas and Uirahami­ hira, to the seventh, with Brahmagupta, Hindu mathematicians had succeeded in the perfection of a number system that was to reach the West via Syria. The first mention of the zero in the west was by a Monophysite bishop in Syria called Severus Sebockt. The Indians also developed a method of dealing with unknown quantities, which takes its name from the title of the Moslem al-Khwarizmi's encyclo­ paedia Bisab al-Babr w-al-Mugabala: algebra.

And, as iron began to develop, with water-worked bellows to provide it in quantity, Europe began to face a fuel famine. The whole­ sale plunder of the forests of Europe intensified and England, which imported timber, soon began to feel the need to regulate its own 48 Side view of the Pant heo n showing the arch construction. ) Anglo-French Civilization, 1100-1399 natural resources of timber and to exploit other fuels. As a result coal began to be increasingly used in England by dyers and brewers who boiled liquids in quantity, and limeburners and smiths who needed high temperatures, and so the coal of Northumberland, South York­ shire and other places was increasingly used.

As Lynn White (p. 143) remarks: 'Surely no one in the bespectacled academic world will be sufficiently discourteous to doubt that this technical development 44 Anglo-French CMlization, 1100-J 399 does much to account for the improved standard of education and the almost feverish tempo of thought characteristic of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. People were able to read more and to read in their maturer years: Other instruments multipl ied. Levi Ben Gerson of Provence (1288-1344) invented an early version of the sextant called the cross shaft, whilst an Equatorial Planetarie (an instrument for predicting the planets) was the subject of a book by Geoffrey Chaucer.

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