A New Ecophysiological Approach to Forest-Water by I. Gindel

By I. Gindel

A scarcity of water exists, not just within the arid areas of the realm, yet even in a few reasonably humid climates. this example is a outcome of water require­ ments for agriculture and in quantities more than the common surplus. Even in Europe there's elevated anxiousness over the nation of water reserves, and shortages are forecast for the close to destiny if keeps to extend. in the past 50 years within the usa, water use has elevated approximately two times as speedy because the fee of inhabitants progress, and shortages have already seemed in a few areas. the necessity to preserve declining water assets which has develop into obvious over the past few a long time has led numerous investigators to finish that vegetation with a excessive fee of transpiration endanger water assets, and the expansion of such crops mustn't ever be inspired. a few imagine that bushes withdraw extra water from the soil than different plant species and evaporate it excessively during the stomata of leaves. THORNTHWAITE and HARE (1955) defined transpiration at the similar thermo­ dynamic foundation as evaporation, and calculated its expense, utilizing DALTON'S legislations or differences thereof. In spite ofthe many earlier and current investigations into the issues of transpiration, the organic features of this crucial strategy remains to be poorly understood.

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0 looked like the present bare areas. Of course, during the 12-14 years of growth in the desert and in the subtropical zone, there has been an addition of a 5-8 cm of forest litter. But it has not yet been able to decompose and to influence the bulk density of the soil. Higher soil moisture was observed not only in plantations, but also under naturally grown indigenous trees and shrubs belonging to the Mediterranean maqui. The excess was found even under isolated evergreen trees. The shade of the tree canopies is not the reason for higher moisture in the soil.

Fig. 16. Irrigation of pine, tamarisk and eucalyptus seedlings with atmospheric water. At the edge of each polyethylene sheet is a gutter fitted with glycerine-alcohol mixture (60:40) to facilitate the presentation of 15-20 micron slices by the sliding microtome. Borings were also taken from the trees by means of a Pressler borer and the thickness of their annual rings was measured by means of an instrument developed by the author to an accuracy of 1/10 mm (Fig. 1). During 1962/64, investigation of the cambium was accompanied by measurement of the transpiration rate.

H. 66 The soil moisture regimen and the role of atmospheric moisture in woody xerophytes presented in the former paragraph awakened the following problems analyzed in the next paragraphs: 1. What is the pattern of the consumption of the two water resources, rainwater and atmospheric moisture, which the woody xerophytes exist from? 2. What is the pattern of the transpiration process, particularly during the critical months when a status quo in the quantity of soil moisture has been reached? 3. To what degree is transpiration correlated with and even parallel to other physiological processes?

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