By A. Faludi
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Extra resources for A Decision-Centred View of Environmental Planning
Means identification, then, provides instruments to achieve a stated end. It falls into two parts: the identification of a universe of means consistent with a value. The alternatives identified would be those which were conditions sufficient for achievement of the goal. This is the deductive element of the model, a task which may take the form of identifying all the feasible alternatives, or a finite number, or possibly only one for comparison with existing conditions (p. 31). The second task is the evaluation of alternatives in terms of (a) the satisfaction of the ends sought and (b) the probability of achieving them.
A different decision-making mechanism is implied by each conception. A unitary one implies a central decision-maker whose role is technical, but endowed with the power at the same time to assert the interest of the " w h o l e " over lesser interests. A n individualistic one implies compromise, in the case of the utilitarian and quasi-utilitarian conceptions, by means of bargaining in which representatives act as instructed by their constituents. Under the quasiindividualistic conception, finally, there must be a mechanism for excluding inappropriate ends.
1 A Decision-centred View of Environmental Planning The context, the personalities, the message In which context did the "Chicago School" thrive? W h o was involved? Why is it still relevant to remind ourselves of an experiment of several decades ago? Answering these questions helps us to realise the continuity of ideas in planning. Perloff 's b o o k , and an autobiographic chapter in a collection of his works (Burns and Fr^edmann, 1985) apart, the only, albeit short, scholarly work on the "Chicago School" (Sarbib, 1983) describes its roots in the New Deal, when the foundations were laid for an interventionist role for the federal government in the United States, and interest grew in the more efficient discharge of local government functions.